Glossary

Listed below are different terms in the world of music. These definitions will help you understand and explain terms found on cassettes.


A

AEPI

Greece

Hellenic Society for the Protection of Intellectual Property
http://www.aepi.gr/index.php?lang=en


AGADU

Uruguay

Asociación de Autores del Uruguay (Uruguayan General Authors' Society )
http://www.agadu.org/


Albert

Albert Music, formerly J Albert and Son is an Australian company with an estimated worth in 2009 of more than A$209 million. The company has major interests in music publishing and production and it currently earns significant royalties through its subsidiary, Albert Productions which manages the music catalogue of the Australian rock band AC/DC. More recently Alberts has formed an alliance with Stuart & Sons to manufacture handcrafted pianos.
http://albertmusic.com/


Aquarius Musikindo

Aquarius Musikindo started in the late 60s when Aquarius was engaged mainly in cassette recording/reproduction of dubious legality, and they have been active in the music industry ever since. The holding company, PT. Aquarius Musikindo was formed and established in 1988, due to new copyright agreements with western markets, making them a legitimate music company. Their history as a legitimate operation licensee began after WEA, EMI, JVC and Pony Canyon appointed Aquarius as their official licensee in manufacturing & distribution for Indonesian territory. They were also the legal importer and distributor of EMI and SONY's product (mainly CD) up to early 2001. While they still continue to be an official licensee for other labels, its license with WEA and EMI ended in 1995 and 1997 respectively.
http://www.aquarius-musikindo.com/


AR

Allied Record Company (Los Angeles)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WEA_Manufacturing


Ariola Eurodisc S.A.

Ariola Records (also known as Ariola and Ariola-Eurodisc) is a German record label. In the late 1980s, it was a subsidiary label of BMG, which in turn has become a part of the international media conglomerate SME.
Ariola Eurodisc, S.A.was a Spanish division of Ariola , a record company distributing and publishing in Spain releases by different labels like Ariola, Arista, Island Records, etc.


ATCO

ATCO Records is an American record label owned by Warner Music Group, currently operating through WMG's Rhino Entertainment.Atco Records was founded in August 1955 as a division of Atlantic Records. It was devised as an outlet for productions by one of Atlantic's founders, Herb Abramson, who had returned to the company from military service. It was also intended as a home for acts that did not fit the format of Atlantic, which at the time was only releasing blues, jazz, and R&B/soul. The Atco name is simply an abbreviation of ATlantic COrporation.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atco_Records
http://www.rhino.com/


Atlantic

Atlantic Recording Corporation (simply known as Atlantic Records) is an American major record label best known for its numerous recordings of rhythm and blues, rock and roll, jazz, and hip hop.Over its first 20 years of operation, Atlantic earned a reputation as one of the most important American recording labels.In 1967, Atlantic became a wholly owned subsidiary of Warner Bros.-Seven Arts, now the Warner Music Group, and expanded into rock and pop music. In 2004 Atlantic Records and its sister label Elektra Records merged into Atlantic Records Group.
http://www.atlanticrecords.com/


Audio Max

Polish cassette label active at the beginning of the nineties.
Label was active in Poland till April/May 1994 when Polish Parliament passed a new law on copyright.
Every cassettes pressed after that date comes from Russian Federation and are pressed by other firm which uses the same name and logo.


AWA

West Germany

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GEMA_%28German_organization%29


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B

Barcode

Barcodes can be sourced from both the barcode text (the numbers printed below the barcode) or by reading the barcode itself with a barcode scanner. If there is a discrepancy between these two sources, both barcode variations can be entered into separate barcode fields.


BIEM

International

BIEM (Bureau International des Sociétés Gérant les Droits d'Enregistrement et de Reproduction Mécanique) is an organisation coordinating statutory license agreements among different countries.
http://www.biem.org/index.php?lang=en
List of BIEM members:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_BIEM_members


Billboard

Indonesian Pirate sub label of King's Record.
Ceased operation in June 1988 due to Indonesia's new Copyright agreements with western markets.


BMG Direct Marketing

Bertelsmann Music Group (BMG) was a division of Bertelsmann before its completion of sale of the majority of its assets to Japan's Sony Corporation of America on October 1, 2008. It was established in 1987 to combine the music label activities of Bertelsmann. It consisted of the BMG Music Publishing company, the world's third largest music publisher and the world's largest independent music publisher, and the 50% share of the joint venture with Sony Music Entertainment, Sony BMG Music Entertainment (Sony BMG).
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bertelsmann_Music_Group


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C

C

Usually keeps the original label's cat# and adds the "C" prefix to it (on CD releases). Catalog #'s of both the original label and Columbia House usually appear on the CD's. Columbia House did not offer CDs before 1986.


CBS

CBS Records International, simply CBS in logo, was the international arm of the Columbia Records unit of Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc. (CBS) that was formed in 1961 and launched in 1962. Columbia Records had been using other record companies to distribute Columbia recordings outside North America, such as Philips Records and its subsidiary Fontana (now associated with Universal Music Group) in Europe.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CBS_Records_International


Columbia House

The Columbia House brand was introduced in the early 1970s by the Columbia Records division of CBS, Inc. as an umbrella for its mail-order music clubs, the primary incarnation of which was the Columbia Record Club, established in 1955. It had a significant market presence in the 1980s and early 1990s
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_House


CRC

is used by Columbia House on the non-vinyl releases they manufacture & distribute in Canada


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D

DIDECA, S.A.

Another name for the Guatemaltecan record company Discos De Centroamérica, S.A. Mostly credited for manufacturing and distribution


Digit Press

Malaysian printing and finishing house established in 1978. (7, Jalan BK 1/11, Bandar Kinrara - 47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan -Malaysia)
http://digitpress.com.my/cp.htm


Distribution Code

the name Distribution Code was chosen due to the fact, that these codes were added by the distributor and not by the releasing label. So it's a sign of the distributor -> Distribution Code.
As a matter of fact they are price codes for the retail shop, not telling them at what price they have to sell the item but what price they have to pay themselves to the distributor.
So it's a distributor specific price code.
they are specific to france


Distribution Codes

Here's a list of known distribution codes, their origins and the companies that use them:
Label-identifying prefixes
• AE ### - Ariola Group Of Companies - Ariola Eurodisc - Arabella Eurodisc
• ARC ### - Arcade
• BA ### - Barclay - Universal Music
• BM ### - BMG
• CA ### - Carrere - Warner Music
• CB ### - CBS - Sony Music
• EW ### - EastWest - Warner Music
• MU ### - Musidisc
• NR ### - New Rose
• PG ### - Phonogram - Universal Music
• PM ### - Pathé Marconi - EMI
• POL ### - Polydor - Universal Music
• PY ### - PolyGram - Universal Music
• UN ### - Universal Music
• VG ### - Vogue - BMG
• WE ### - WEA - Warner Music
• WM ### - WMD (Wotre Music Distribution)
EMI Version
EMI enclosed the above type of distribution code within their 'international catalogue numbers' from 1969-1982*, and continued to display them on EU-pressed media until the mid-1990s prefixed with "F: PM..."
Rather than use a pair/triplet of letters to indicate the label (as with the above list), they used a pair/triplet of characters to indicate the country of distribution - one or two digits followed by one letter.
e.g.
• 1C ### - EMI Germany
• 1E ### - EMI UK (later became
• 0C ### ("zero C") )
• 2C ### - France († from 1983 appearing with a PM prefix instead)
• 3C ### - Italy
• 4C ### - Belgium
• 5C ### - Holland
For "mid-price" re-issues the 'C' or 'E' was changed to 'M' (indicating either Mid-Price or being on the Music For Pleasure label, e.g.
• 1M ### - Mid-Price/MFP re-issue


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E

E.M.S.S.A.

Argentinian record company, a division of EMI founded in the first 70s (previously named Industrias Electricas Y Musicales Odeon S.A.I.C.). his is a record company, not a label.


El Virrey

Industrias Musicales S.A. (Av. Republica de Panama 3551 SAN ISIDRO - LIMA - PERU)


Elbo

Polish label which was releasing pirated tapes at the beginning of 90's.


EMI

Electric and Musical Industries also known as EMI Music or simply EMI, was a British multinational music recording and publishing company, and electronics device and systems manufacturing company, headquartered in London, England.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMI


EMI Odeon Chilena S.A.

Chilean record company, previously named Industrias Eléctricas y Musicales Odeon, S.A..


EMI-Odeon S.A.I.C.

Argentinian record company, a division of EMI founded in the first 70s (previously named Industrias Electricas Y Musicales Odeon S.A.I.C.). his is a record company, not a label.


Epic

Epic Records is an American record company. A division of Sony Music Entertainment, Inc., Epic was founded predominantly as a jazz and classical music label in 1953. It later expanded its scope to include diverse musical genres including pop, R&B, rock and hip hop.
http://www.epicrecords.com/


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G

G.P.I.S.A.

Greek pressing & manufacturing plant, founded in 1975. G.P.I. stands for Greek Phonographic Industries.
Has pressed a vast quantity of vinyl records and cassettes for the majority of labels based in Greece such as 'Lyra'.
Originally independent, it later became a Phonogram / PolyGram pressing plant. In 1995 it was purchased by 'Digital Press Hellas'.


GEMA

t


GEMA

Germany

Gesellschaft für musikalische Aufführungs- und mechanische Vervielfältigungsrechte (English: Society for musical performing and mechanical reproduction rights)
https://www.gema.de/en/


GMI

Singapore bootleg label.


GMR

Malaysian printing and finishing house established in 1978. (7, Jalan BK 1/11, Bandar Kinrara - 47100 Puchong, Selangor Darul Ehsan -Malaysia)
http://digitpress.com.my/cp.htm


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H

Hispavox

A major Spanish label (Torrelaguna 64 - Madrid-27,Spain), run by Hispavox, S.A.. They were acquired by EMI in 1984.


Hwa Eum Records Ltd.

South Korea Manufactured Industry


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I

IFSA

Industria Fonográfica Sociedad Anónima. Label, manufacturer and distributor company from Paraguay. Released cassettes on BASF Chrome Dioxid tapes, until the end of the 90s decade. (Last adress: Av. Aviadores del Chaco 1690 - Edif. Ami Tours - Piso 2 - Asunción, Paraguay.)


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J

JASRAC

Japan

The Japanese Society for Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers (社団法人日本音楽著作権協会 Shadanhōjin Nihon Ongaku Chosakuken Kyōkai)
http://www.jasrac.or.jp/ejhp/index.htm


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L

Label

A record label is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information.


Label Code

is a four or five digit code prefixed with LC. GVL started on 1st May 1976 to allocate Labelcodes to record companies in order to uniquely identify them. Codes are currently assigned by GVL to companies engaged in music recording that are located in the countries of the EU. A label code should not be confused with a release's catalog number. A catalog number identifies a particular release, whereas a label code identifies an entire label.

LC (German Label Code)
LC 0120: ATCO
LC 0121: ATLANTIC


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M

Mag Magic

Polish cassette label of dubious legal standing. Considered defunct. Many of Mag Magic releases are good quality tapes with excellent sound.


Magnasound Records

Magnasound was an Indian record company that specialized in Indian classical music, Indian rock and Indipop. It was distributed by OMI Music Inc. Shashi Gopal was the managing director of Magnasound.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnasound_Records


MMY

Milletlerarasi Muzik YayinlariLTD . Turkish record company. (Unkapanı, Atatürk Bulvarı
34134 İSTANBUL )Attention! This is a company, not a label.


MPO

French pressing plant, manufacturing and distribution company which stemmed from their original pressing plant in Averton (Mayenne), France, established by Pierre Tyrel de Poix in 1957. The 'MPO' acronym remains from the original company; 'Moulages et Plastiques de l'Ouest'. Through expansion, MPO has permanent offices throughout the world, with a strong presence in Europe. MPO is an acronym for "Moulages Plastiques de l'Ouest" (in English: Western Plastics Castings).


MUSICAUTHOR

Bulgaria

non-profit organization for collective management of copyrights - those of authors and composers
http://www.musicautor.org/english/


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O

Orpheus Music

Established in 1994 in Bulgaria, Orpheus Music Ltd. works in the manufacturing, distribution and marketing of music audio and video products.
In 1996 Orpheus Music became the exclusive licensee of Warner Music International for the territory of Bulgaria.
http://www.orpheus-music.com/


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P

PARI

The Philippine Association of the Record Industry (Filipino: Kapisanan ng Industriya ng Plaka ng Pilipinas, abbreviated as PARI) is a non-profit and private trade organization, that represents the recording industry distributors in the Philippines.The PARI was formed in February 10, 1972 and today composed of 14 corporate members and 13 associate members. Since then, the association had worked with the Congress on drafting music copyright laws and had helped conduct raids on music pirates with the National Bureau of Investigation, Philippine National Police, Criminal Investigation and Detection Group and Optical Media Board.It is also responsible for awarding music recording certifications in the Philippines. Annually, PARI organizes different music events such as the Awit Awards.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippine_Association_of_the_Record_Industry


Peace

Peace was a Syrian cassette label produced by the company Peace Tapes Production.


Peace Tapes Production

Peace Tapes Production was a Syrian cassette company located in Hamra Street, Damascus


Polton

Polton is a music record label, established in Poland in 1983. It was one of the three (together with Savitor and Arston) better known Polonia-assisted Polish record labels.In 1990-1991 it was overtaken by Starstream Communications Group and eventually by Warner Music Group (Polton / Warner Music Poland), the latter eventually closed its office in Poland.


PT Hemagita Tama Record

Indonesian record label operated in the 1990s, a distributor for Warner Music. In 1996, PT Warner Music Indonesia was established through the acquisition of the label.

Hemagita Tama Record and Hemagita Record is related. Cassettes of foreign albums distributed by Hemagita Record, minus Malaysian albums, has the word Hanya untuk dijual di Indonesia within the cassette cover. The same word also appeared in foreign releases of PT. Aquarius Musikindo and PT EMI Indonesia, but this does not expand to EMI cassettes distributed by Warner Music.

The album codes used are mixed, examples included HGT XXXX for albums of domestic singers and HA XXXX and HW XXXX for foreign albums. The album codes used in other countries is also used in Indonesian pressed cassettes.


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R

RC Company

Pirate label active in mid-80s and beginning of 90s


RCA

The name RCA refers back to the Radio Corporation of America (RCA), a US company that existed in the 20th century. In 1929 this company entered the music business when it acquired the Victor Talking Machine Company. The Victor Talking Machine Company had released record on the Victor label until then. With RCA Victor being the main label of the new business, RCA wasn't widely used as a label brand until the 1950s. In 1985 the RCA label became part of RCA/Ariola International. One year later Bertelsmann (Ariola's owner) acquired 100% of RCA from General Electric and created the Bertelsmann Music Group. Since then, the RCA label has switched owners twice. First it became a label of Sony BMG Music Entertainment and nowadays it's one of Sony Music Entertainment's labels.


RCA Eletrônica Ltda

R.C.A. Eletrônica Brasileira SA was established in 1961 to press RCA records in Brazil and record Brazilian musicians. (Avenida Ipiranga, 1097 São Paulo, Brazil)


RCA Music Service

RCA Records's mail order music club. It was launched in the mid-1950s as an answer to CBS's Columbia House. Releases by this club may have printed one of the following: Mfd. by RCA Music Service under License, Mfd. for RCA Music Service under License, Manufactured by RCA Music Service, RCA Music Service Edition, or Distributed under License from ... by RCA Music Service. Name changed to BMG Music Service (BMG Direct Marketing, Inc.) after Bertelsmann acquired RCA in 1987.


Record Label

A record label is a brand or trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. Often, a record label is also a publishing company that manages such brands and trademarks, coordinates the production, manufacture, distribution, marketing, promotion, and enforcement of copyright for sound recordings and music videos; conducts talent scouting and development of new artists ("artists and repertoire" or "A&R"); and maintains contracts with recording artists and their managers. The term "record label" derives from the circular label in the center of a vinyl record which prominently displays the manufacturer's name, along with other information.


Renew Variety Records

Uruguay Label Distribution


Right Society

Rights Society is an association that administers the rights to the artists recorded work, such as collecting royalties for radio and TV usage etc. Also called the copyright collectives.


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S

SACEM

France

Société des auteurs, compositeurs et éditeurs de musique
https://www.sacem.fr/


SACM

Mexico

Sociedad De Autores y Compositores De Mexico
http://www.sacm.org.mx/contacto.asp


SADAIC-BIEM AADI-CAPIF

Argentina

Sociedad Argentina de Autores y Compositores de Música (SADAIC)
http://www.sadaic.org.ar/
Asociación Argentina de Intérpretes (AADI)
Cámara Argentina de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas (CAPIF)


SGAE

Spain

Sociedad General de Autores y Editores
http://www.sgae.es/es-ES/SitePages/index.aspx


SIAE

Italy

Sociedad General de Autores y Editores
http://www.sgae.es/es-ES/SitePages/index.aspx


SOKOY

Yugoslavia

Union of Yugoslav Composers
Now : Serbian Music Authors' Organization (formerly Yugoslav)
https://www.discogs.com/it/label/418012-SOKOJ


Sony

Sony Music Entertainment Inc. (sometimes known as Sony Music or by the initials, SME) is an American music corporation managed and operated by Sony Corporation of America (SCA), a subsidiary of Japanese conglomerate Sony Corporation. In 1929, the enterprise was first founded as American Record Corporation (ARC) and, in 1938, was renamed Columbia Recording Corporation, following ARC's acquisition by CBS. In 1966, the company was reorganized to become CBS Records. In 1987, Sony Corporation of Japan bought the company, and in 1991, renamed it SME. It is the world's second largest recorded music company, after Universal Music Group.In 2004, SME and Bertelsmann Music Group merged as Sony BMG Music Entertainment. When Sony acquired BMG's half of the conglomerate in 2008, Sony BMG reverted to the SME name. The buyout led to the dissolution of BMG, which then relaunched as BMG Rights Management. Out of the "Big Three" record companies, with Universal Music Group being the largest and Warner Music Group, SME is middle-sized.
https://www.sonymusic.com/


SR

Specialty Records Corporation (Olyphant, Pennsylvania)


STEMRA

Netherlands

Union of Yugoslav Composers
Now : Serbian Music Authors' Organization (formerly Yugoslav)
https://www.discogs.com/it/label/418012-SOKOJ


Suzy

The company was established in the then Socialist Republic of Croatia in the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1972.
After the abandonment of the socialist system and the subsequent breakup of Yugoslavia, during the 1990s the company transformed to SUZY d.o.o. (limited company).However, unlike its bigger competitors Jugoton and PGP-RTB which changed their names to Croatia Records and PGP-RTS respectively, Suzy continued to work under the same name. Several of its older important domestic titles were re-released in cooperation with another Croatian record label Hit Records during the 2000s.
http://www.suzy.hr/


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T

Tact

Tact founded in 1990 was the first name of Takt Music started in the beginning of 1991. The cassettes released under changed name had almost same artwork but different logos.
Reissued titles under the name - Takt Music had the same cat. number.


TAKT Music

Label which used to release pirated tapes in Poland, starting in 1990 as Tact. In 1991 they changed name to Takt Music and were active under that name till April/May 1994. The money earned on those releases helped to open a major pressing plant (CDs, DVDs & tapes), named TAKT (initally with almost the same logo)


Tatik

Tatik Industry Sdn. Bhd. is a company incorporated in Malaysia and has been dissolved as a company in December of 2015.

Manufacturer And Distributor Of Discs, Videodiscs And Music Cassettes in Malaysia

Information thanks to Discogs: https://www.discogs.com/it/label/616048-Tatik


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t

test

test


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U

UFO Group

Taiwanese company that manufactured records for WEA International Inc.
https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E9%A3%9B%E7%A2%9F%E5%94%B1%E7%89%87


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W

Warner-Pioneer Corporation

Warner-Pioneer Corporation was established in April 1972 as a successor to Warner Bros.-Pioneer Corporation. In 1989, Warner Music Group bought out Pioneer and renamed the company to Warner Music Japan Inc. in 1991. In 2002 Warner Music Japan, EastWest Japan and Time Warner Entertainment Japan merged and renamed as Warner Entertainment Japan. Two years later, in 2004, Music section spun off from Warner Entertainment Japan and renamed again as Warner Music Japan.


WEA

Warner Music Group (abbreviated as WMG and also known as Warner Music) is an American global record company headquartered in New York City. The largest American-owned music conglomerate worldwide, it is one of the "big three" recording companies (the third largest in the global music industry) next to Universal Music Group (UMG) and Sony Music Entertainment (SME). The company owns and operates some of the largest and most successful recording labels in the world, including its flagship labels Warner Bros. Records, Parlophone Records and Atlantic Records. WMG also owns Warner/Chappell Music, one of the world's largest music-publishing companies.
http://www.wmg.com/
List of record labels : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_record_labels


WEA Filipacchi Music

French division of WEA International in the 70s,
started on July 1st 1971 as Kinney Filipacchi Music S.A. and was renamed to WEA Filipacchi Music S.A. mid 1972. Sometimes printed as WEA/Filipacchi Music.


WEA, S.A. de C.V.

Mexican record company founded in 1981, affiliate of WEA International Inc.
Una Cia. del Grupo Warner Communications usually appears on releases from the other umbrella labels Warner Bros. Records, Atlantic, Elektra and WEA. In 1990; due to WEA Internationals name change to Warner Music International, Mexican company's name changes to Warner Music México, S.A. de C.V..


WEL S. A.

Uruguay Manufactured Industry


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Z

ZAIKS

Poland

Polish Society of Authors and Composers (Związek Autorów i Kompozytorów Scenicznych, ZAiKS) is a Polish organization representing artists and composers with the mission of "defending their copyright rights".
http://www.zaiks.org.pl/